Interventional Cardiology is a specialty which uses imaging techniques and strategies for the diagnosis of the diseases of the heart and blood vessel. These novel, minimally invasive, non-surgical procedures make use of mechanical treatments for the diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
These procedures are mostly performed under local anesthesia, have a considerably short hospitalization and recovery period with minimal post-operative pain and discomfort. Interventional Cardiology includes a number of procedures that can be performed to the heart by means of inserting a ‘catheter’ either in your heart or in one of your blood vessels of the groin, neck or forearm.
- Cardiac Catheterization
- Coronary Angioplasty
- Coronary Stenting
- Drug Eluting Coronary Stenting
- Peripheral Angioplasty
Corneal transplant or corneal grafting or keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure which involves the substitution of a damaged or diseased cornea to reinstate and bring back full vision. The success rates of corneal transplant procedures are significantly high. Affordable and cost effective corneal transplants are available at a number of medical tourism destinations abroad. India, Mexico, Costa Rica, Jordan, and Turkey are some of the renowned and highly advanced countries, which offer, quality medical and surgical care at inexpensive prices.
Corneal Transplant Abroad
Success rates of Corneal Transplants
The Cornea Transplant surgery is one of the most efficient and successful organ transplant surgeries. The success depends greatly up on the extent and nature of damage / injury to the eye. The success rate of the procedure could be as high as 95 %.
Indications for Corneal Transplantation
To improve vision by replacing the clouded or opaque cornea by a healthy corneal tissue. The commonest indications for a corneal transplant, (also, called corneal grafting), are – pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, keratoconus, corneal degeneration, keratitis, and trauma.
To protect the corneal structure and integrity or to restructure the anatomy of the eye, e.g. when a corneal perforation occurs.
To eliminate an inflamed corneal tissue that is insensitive to anti-biotic treatment.
To enhance the appearance of a patient who has a corneal scar
Preparing for a Corneal Transplant
The ophthalmologist examines the eye in detail, and discusses the various surgical options available to the patient.
The corneal replacement surgery can take place only once a donor is found.
Routine laboratory tests, blood tests, and X-rays are performed.
Corneal Transplant: the procedure
The procedure for a corneal eye transplant is carried out under a general anesthesia or a local anesthesia and a sedative.
Drapes are placed around the eye.
An eyelid speculum is used to keep the eye open.
The eye is lubricated so as to ward off drying.
Only the innermost portion of the cornea is involved in the transplantation process. A suitable portion of the patient’s cornea is excised, using a trephine, and it is then replaced with a same sized disc from the donor cornea, and sutured in to place.
Anti-biotic eye drops are placed in the eye and the eye is covered up.
The patient can go home after this and must come back the next day for the first follow up.
The availability of a Donor Cornea for Corneal Transplant
Corneas for transplant are procured from an eye bank, where individuals donate their eyes for the assistance of others, after their death. A donor cornea can be used up to maximum of 4 days after the death of the donor, depending on the mode of preservation. Factors such as gender, color of the iris, the previous vision of the donor have no bearing on the result of the surgery.
In certain cases, where there have been graft failures or the risk for having a cornea transplant / keratoplasty is high, then, synthetic corneas can replace donor corneas successfully.
Precautions to be taken after a Corneal Transplant procedure
You ought to ensure that you take the prescribed oral anti-biotics and the eye drops regularly to check infections, swelling and pain.
Steroidal drops have to be taken for a few months to prevent a rejection of the cornea.
A metal eye shield is placed over the eye for protection and must be kept for the first few days after the surgery.
You have to be extra cautious and protect the eye from injury at all times.
Safety glasses during exercise are a must.
Stay away from rigorous exercises and lifting heavy weights. They delay healing and recovery, and put the corneal replacement at risk.
Stitches are removed after 3 to 17 months after the corneal grafting procedure.
Regular check ups and examinations by the ophthalmologist are of absolute importance.
Recovery after a Corneal Transplant
Usually, vision improves after several months, post the keratoplasty operation. Occasionally, it could even take more than a year to heal completely. What’s more, recovery after a corneal transplantation surgery greatly depends on the body’s healing capacity, and whether the rest of the eye was healthy, prior to the operation.
Possible complications or risks associated with a Corneal Transplant
As is the case with most other surgical procedures, the corneal transplant procedure also entails a few risks:
- Eye infection
- Increased pressure within the eye
- A wound leak and swelling
- Poor or delayed wound healing
- A rejection of the transplanted cornea, which would involve another surgical process
- There is a possibility of loss of vision in that particular eye.
- A loss of the entire eye
- Death, due to severe reaction to the anesthesia.
Benefits of having a Corneal Transplant
- A cornea transplant restores a person’s vision.
- It reduces pain that is caused by disease or trauma
Alternatives to a Corneal Transplant
Contact lenses: In the preliminary stages, contact lenses often improve vision. Contact lenses improve visual acuity of a majority of keratoconus patients. Patients need to use hard contact lenses. Only about 10 to 20% of the patients would require a corneal substitution during their life times due to deterioration of the condition.
Lamellar Keratoplasty: This technique leaves the patient’s own Descemet membrane and endothelium, and replaces about 95% of the cornea. This technique is advantageous because there is virtually no rejection of the donated cornea, post-operatively. The only disadvantage is that the vision is not as clear, as it would be with a corneal transplantation procedure.
High speed lasers: Lancets are slowly being replaced by high speed lasers so that the surgical incisions are more accurate. A high speed laser technique helps the cornea to heal a lot more rapidly and the sutures can be removed sooner. Recovery, healing, and visual outcomes are greatly augmented by this procedure.
Why Corneal Transplant abroad?
According to the Eye Bank Association of America, in the year 2008, there have been more than 41,000 cornea replacement surgeries conducted annually in the United States. Having a keratoplasty in the U.S. could be an extremely expensive affair. Thus, it is more viable and alluring to go in for corneal transplants abroad, at destinations such as Mexico, Turkey, India, Costa Rica, and Jordan. These countries provide inexpensive and superior quality of cornea transplant procedures, conducted by highly skilled and vastly experienced ophthalmologists. The cost for a cornea transplant surgery, in these countries comes at a fraction of the cost that would be charged in U.S.
The price package is inclusive of the hospital stay, laboratory and diagnostic tests, anesthesia, operation theater fees, the doctors’ fees, ride to and from the hospital, and medications. Thus, cornea transplant surgery abroad at affordable costs comes as a savior to millions of people.
Cornea Transplant India
India is one of the frequently visited medical tourism destinations. Its healthcare infrastructure has improved dramatically and more and more hospitals have undergone international accreditations like ISO, JCI, etc. corneal transplantation in India comes at a fraction of cost in the United States, which has succeeded in attracting several medical tourists to India. Furthermore, India has a large volume of English speaking population, making communication easy and effective for the foreign visitors. Well experienced and skilled ophthalmologists and a qualified medical team carry out the corneal replacement procedure.
Corneal Transplant in Mexico
According to the World Heath Organization (WHO), Mexican health care infrastructure is ranked 61st in the world, way ahead of other competing international medical destinations. Due to the availability of skilled and experienced ophthalmologists and a competent medical team, Mexico is one of the most preferred destinations for U.S patients when it comes to looking for low cost, high quality surgical care.
Corneal Transplant in Jordan
Jordan is internationally acclaimed for its experienced and skilled surgeons. Jordon has emerged as one of the fastest budding medical tourism locations in the Middle East region of Asia. With the government aiming to develop the country into a best medical travel care destinations, hospitals across Jordan are offering high quality surgical care at half the cost in United States.
Corneal Transplant in Turkey
Turkey provides world class and top quality medical and surgical facilities to international patients, which is greatly reflected by a stable rise in foreign medical tourists visiting the country. Adept and highly skilled ophthalmologists conduct the corneal replacement surgery using high end equipment.
Corneal Transplant in South Korea
South Korean hospitals have shown extensive success and efficiency in the management of corneal transplant procedures. These successes are attributed to the superior quality of medical and surgical care and the vast experience of trained and skilled ophthalmologists and medical personnel in Korean hospitals. The phenomenal success rates united with considerably low cost of the surgical procedure is attracting several patients from the United States.
Divine Medicare facilitates low cost Corneal Transplant Surgery at world class medical tourism destinations.